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RPM
indexterm:[RPM Package Manager,RPM]indexterm:[RPM]indexterm:[packages,RPM] The _RPM Package Manager_ ([application]*RPM*) is an open packaging system that runs on {MAJOROS} as well as other Linux and UNIX systems. Red{nbsp}Hat and the Fedora Project encourage other vendors to use [application]*RPM* for their own products. [application]*RPM* is distributed under the terms of the _GPL_ (_GNU General Public License_).
The [application]*RPM Package Manager* only works with packages built in the *RPM format*. [application]*RPM* itself is provided as the pre-installed [package]*rpm* package. For the end user, [application]*RPM* makes system updates easy. Installing, uninstalling, and upgrading [application]*RPM* packages can be accomplished with short commands. [application]*RPM* maintains a database of installed packages and their files, so you can make queries and verify installed files on your system. There are several applications, such as [application]*DNF* or [application]*PackageKit*, that can make working with packages in the [application]*RPM* format even easier.
Use DNF Instead of RPM Whenever Possible
indexterm:[packages,DNF instead of RPM] For most package-management tasks, the [application]*DNF* package manager offers equal and often greater capabilities and utility than [application]*RPM*. [application]*DNF* also performs and tracks complicated system-dependency resolutions. [application]*DNF* maintains the system integrity and forces a system integrity check if packages are installed or removed using another application, such as [application]*RPM*, instead of [application]*DNF*. For these reasons, it is highly recommended that you use [application]*DNF* instead of [application]*RPM* whenever possible to perform package-management tasks. See xref:package-management/DNF.adoc#ch-DNF[DNF].
If you prefer a graphical interface, you can use the [application]*PackageKit* GUI application, which uses [application]*DNF* as its back end, to manage your system's packages.
During upgrades, [application]*RPM* handles configuration files carefully, so that you never lose your customizations — something that you cannot accomplish with regular `.tar.gz` files. indexterm:[packages,RPM,source and binary packages] For the developer, [application]*RPM* enables software source code to be packaged into source and binary packages for end users. This process is quite simple and is driven from a single file and optional patches that you create. This clear delineation between pristine sources and your patches along with build instructions eases the maintenance of the package as new versions of the software are released.
Note
Because [application]*RPM* can make changes to the system itself, performing operations like installing, upgrading, downgrading, and uninstalling binary packages system-wide requires `root` privileges in most cases.
RPM Design Goals
indexterm:[RPM,design goals] To understand how to use [application]*RPM*, it is helpful to understand the design goals of [application]*RPM*:
indexterm:[RPM,design goals,upgradability] Upgradability
With [application]*RPM*, you can upgrade individual components of your system without a complete reinstallation. When you get a new release of an operating system based on [application]*RPM*, such as {MAJOROS}, you do not need to reinstall a fresh copy of the operating system on your machine (as you might need to with operating systems based on other packaging systems). [application]*RPM* allows for intelligent, fully-automated, in-place upgrades of your system. In addition, configuration files in packages are preserved across upgrades, so you do not lose your customizations. There are no special upgrade files needed to upgrade a package because the same [application]*RPM* file is used to both install and upgrade the package on the system.
indexterm:[RPM,design goals,powerful querying] Powerful Querying
[application]*RPM* is designed to provide powerful querying options. You can perform searches on your copy of the database for packages or even just certain files. You can also easily find out what package a file belongs to and where the package came from. The files an [application]*RPM* package contains are in a compressed archive, with a custom binary header containing useful information about the package and its contents, allowing you to query individual packages quickly and easily.
indexterm:[RPM,design goals,system verification] System Verification
Another powerful [application]*RPM* feature is the ability to verify packages. It allows you to verify that the files installed on the system are the same as the ones supplied by a given package. If an inconsistency is detected, [application]*RPM* notifies you, and you can reinstall the package if necessary. Any configuration files that you modified are preserved during reinstallation.
indexterm:[packages,RPM,pristine sources] Pristine Sources
A crucial design goal was to allow the use of *pristine* software sources, as distributed by the original authors of the software. With [application]*RPM*, you have the pristine sources along with any patches that were used, plus complete build instructions. This is an important advantage for several reasons. For instance, if a new version of a program is released, you do not necessarily have to start from scratch to get it to compile. You can look at the patch to see what you *might* need to do. All the compiled-in defaults, and all of the changes that were made to get the software to build properly, are easily visible using this technique.
The goal of keeping sources pristine may seem important only for developers, but it results in higher quality software for end users.