$ [command]#cd ~/Downloads#
$ [command]#dmesg|tail#
[288954.686557] usb 2-1.8: New USB device strings: Mfr=0, Product=1, SerialNumber=2
[288954.686559] usb 2-1.8: Product: USB Storage
[288954.686562] usb 2-1.8: SerialNumber: 000000009225
[288954.712590] usb-storage 2-1.8:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
[288954.712687] scsi host6: usb-storage 2-1.8:1.0
[288954.712809] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[288954.716682] usbcore: registered new interface driver uas
[288955.717140] scsi 6:0:0:0: Direct-Access Generic STORAGE DEVICE 9228 PQ: 0 ANSI: 0
[288955.717745] sd 6:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg4 type 0
[288961.876382] sd 6:0:0:0: *sdd* Attached SCSI removable disk
$ [command]#mediawriter#
$ [command]#sudo dnf install mediawriter#
$ [command]#sudo mediawriter#
> $download_checksum = [System.BitConverter]::ToString($sha256.ComputeHash([System.IO.File]::ReadAllBytes("$PWD\$image"))).ToLower() -replace '-', ''
$ grep '^SHA256' *-CHECKSUM | awk -F '[()=]' '{ print $4 " " $2 }' | shasum -a 256 -c
> $image = "Fedora-Server-DVD-x86_64-21.iso"
> $checksum_file = "Fedora-Server-21-x86_64-CHECKSUM"
> $sha256 = New-Object -TypeName System.Security.Cryptography.sha256CryptoServiceProvider
> $expected_checksum = ((Get-Content $checksum_file | Select-String -Pattern $image) -split " ")[0].ToLower()
$ sha256sum -c *CHECKSUM
Always back up your data before performing an upgrade or reinstalling your system, no matter which method you choose.
Always think twice before writing an image to the device. The media creation methods described in this article are destructive. All data on the USB stick are deleted during the process, so make sure you have a back up of the data on the USB stick. Double check that you have selected correct device to write the image to!
[application]*Fedora Media Writer* has been significantly improved and is now the official, tested and supported way to make bootable media. [application]*Fedora Media Writer* supports Linux, Mac, and Windows. It is an easy way to make bootable USB media to install Fedora (or other operating systems). Using [application]*Fedora Media Writer* is strongly encouraged, although other USB media creation software can work as well.
Automatic upgrade using [application]*dnf system upgrade*
Because transmission errors or other problems may corrupt the Fedora image you have downloaded, it is important to verify the file's integrity. After the images are created, an operation is performed on the file that produces a value called a `checksum` using a complex mathematical algorithm. The operation is sufficiently complex that *any change* to the original file will produce a different checksum.
By calculating the image's `checksum` on your own computer and comparing it to the original `checksum`, you can verify the image has not been tampered with or corrupted. The original checksum values are provided at link:++https://getfedora.org/security/++[], and are [command]#gpg# signed to demonstrate their integrity.
Calculate the downloaded image's checksum. This will take a while!
> cd $HOME\Downloads\
> ls
Change to the directory containing the downloaded files.
Click the menu icon in the upper right corner of the window, and choose the `Restore Disk Image` option.
Click your USB device in the left column.