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[command]#ls -l /boot/#
The _kernel_version_ should match the version of the kernel just installed.
Verifying the Boot Loader
indexterm:[boot loader,verifying] When you install a kernel using [command]#rpm#, the kernel package creates an entry in the boot loader configuration file for that new kernel. However, [command]#rpm# does *not* configure the new kernel to boot as the default kernel. You must do this manually when installing a new kernel with [command]#rpm#.
It is always recommended to double-check the boot loader configuration file after installing a new kernel with [command]#rpm# to ensure that the configuration is correct. Otherwise, the system might not be able to boot into {MAJOROS} properly. If this happens, boot the system with the boot media created earlier and re-configure the boot loader.
In the following table, find your system's architecture to determine the boot loader it uses, and then click on the "See" link to jump to the correct instructions for your system.
Boot loaders by architecture
|Architecture|Boot Loader|See
|x86|GRUB 2|xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s3-kernel-boot-loader-grub[Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot Loader]
|AMD AMD64 *or* Intel 64|GRUB 2|xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s3-kernel-boot-loader-grub[Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot Loader]
|IBM eServer System i|OS/400|xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s2-kernel-boot-loader-iseries[Configuring the OS/400 Boot Loader]
|IBM eServer System p|YABOOT|xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s2-kernel-boot-loader-pseries[Configuring the YABOOT Boot Loader]
|IBM System z|z/IPL|—
Configuring the GRUB 2 Boot Loader
indexterm:[GRUB 2 boot loader,configuring]indexterm:[GRUB 2 boot loader,configuration file] {MAJOROSVER} is distributed with GRUB 2, which reads its configuration from the `/boot/grub2/grub.cfg` file. This file is generated by the [application]*grub2-mkconfig* utility based on Linux kernels located in the `/boot` directory, template files located in `/etc/grub.d/`, and custom settings in the `/etc/default/grub` file and is automatically updated each time you install a new kernel from an RPM package. To update this configuration file manually, type the following at a shell prompt as `root`:
[command]#grub2-mkconfig# [option]`-o` [option]`/boot/grub2/grub.cfg`
Among various code snippets and directives, the `/boot/grub2/grub.cfg` configuration file contains one or more `menuentry` blocks, each representing a single GRUB 2 boot menu entry. These blocks always start with the `menuentry` keyword followed by a title, list of options, and opening curly bracket, and end with a closing curly bracket. Anything between the opening and closing bracket should be indented. For example, the following is a sample `menuentry` block for Fedora 21 with Linux kernel 3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64:
menuentry 'Fedora (3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64) 21 (Twenty One)' --class fedora --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os --unrestricted $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-3.17.4-301.fc21.x86_64-advanced-effee860-8d55-4e4a-995e-b4c88f9ac9f0' {
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='hd0,msdos1'
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint='hd0,msdos1' f19c92f4-9ead-4207-b46a-723b7a2c51c8
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root f19c92f4-9ead-4207-b46a-723b7a2c51c8
linux16 /vmlinuz-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64 root=/dev/mapper/fedora-root ro rhgb quiet LANG=en_US.UTF-8
initrd16 /initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img
Each `menuentry` block that represents an installed Linux kernel contains `linux` and `initrd` directives followed by the path to the kernel and the `initramfs` image respectively. If a separate `/boot` partition was created, the paths to the kernel and the `initramfs` image are relative to `/boot`. In the example above, the `initrd16 /initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img` line means that the `initramfs` image is actually located at `/boot/initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img` when the root file system is mounted, and likewise for the kernel path.
The kernel version number as given on the `linux /vmlinuz-_kernel_version_pass:attributes[{blank}]` line must match the version number of the `initramfs` image given on the `initrd /initramfs-_kernel_version_.img` line of each `menuentry` block. For more information on how to verify the initial RAM disk image, refer to xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#procedure-Verifying_the_Initial_RAM_Disk_Image[Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image].
The initrd directive in grub.cfg refers to an initramfs image
In `menuentry` blocks, the `initrd` directive must point to the location (relative to the `/boot` directory if it is on a separate partition) of the `initramfs` file corresponding to the same kernel version. This directive is called `initrd` because the previous tool which created initial RAM disk images, [command]#mkinitrd#, created what were known as `initrd` files. The `grub.cfg` directive remains `initrd` to maintain compatibility with other tools. The file-naming convention of systems using the [command]#dracut# utility to create the initial RAM disk image is `initramfs-_kernel_version_.img`.
For information on using [application]*Dracut*, refer to xref:kernel-module-driver-configuration/Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#sec-Verifying_the_Initial_RAM_Disk_Image[Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image].
After installing a new kernel with [command]#rpm#, verify that `/boot/grub2/grub.cfg` is correct and reboot the computer into the new kernel. Ensure your hardware is detected by watching the boot process output. If GRUB 2 presents an error and is unable to boot into the new kernel, it is often easiest to try to boot into an alternative or older kernel so that you can fix the problem. Alternatively, use the boot media you created earlier to boot the system.
Causing the GRUB 2 boot menu to display