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Recommended System Swap Space
`/` (root) - 10 GB
swap - based on your system parameters
Swap partitions support virtual memory; data is written to them when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. This partition's size is a function of system memory workload, not total system memory, and therefore is not equal to the total system memory size. Therefore, it is important to analyze what applications a system will be running and the load those applications will serve in order to determine the system memory workload. Application providers and developers should be able to provide some guidance.
Systems with BIOS firmware and UEFI systems in BIOS compatibility mode
Systems with UEFI firmware
The [application]*GRUB2* boot loader can be installed either in the _Master Boot Record_ (MBR) or the _GUID Partition Table_ (GPT) of the boot device. In order to determine which of these methods to use, the installation program considers the following variations:
The `/` mount point is the top of the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy, and is referred to as the _root file system_, or root. The `/root` directory, sometimes pronounced "pass:attributes[{blank}]_slash-root_pass:attributes[{blank}]", is the home directory for the `root` user.
The table below provides the recommended size of a swap partition depending on the amount of RAM in your system and whether you want sufficient memory for your system to hibernate. If you let the installation program partition your system automatically, the swap partition size will be established using these guidelines. Automatic partitioning setup assumes hibernation is not in use, and the maximum size of the swap partition is limited to 10% of the total size of the hard drive. If you want to set up enough swap space to allow for hibernation, or if you want to set the swap partition size to more than 10% of the system's storage space, you must edit the partitioning layout manually.
This is where the root directory is located. The root directory is the top level of the directory structure. By default, all files are written to this partition unless a different partition is mounted in the path being written to (for example, `/boot` or `/home`). If you follow the recommended scheme described in this section, this will be the partition where most software packages will be installed.
This partition contains the operating system kernel, which allows {PRODUCT} to boot. It also contains other files used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most firmware, creating a separate, small standard partition for this directory is recommended. In most scenarios, a 500 MB `/boot` partition is adequate.
To store user data separately from system data, create a dedicated mount point for the `/home` directory. This partition should be sized based on the amount of data that will be stored locally, number of users, and so on. This will allow you to upgrade or reinstall {PRODUCT} without erasing user data files. During the installation, a separate `/home` partition will be created if there are 50 GB or more free space for your {PRODUCT} installation.
UEFI-based systems require an _EFI System Partition_ at least 50 MB in size (recommended size is 200 MB), regardless of the partitioning scheme.
When the system runs out of swap space, the kernel terminates processes as the system RAM memory is exhausted. Configuring too much swap space results in storage devices being allocated but idle and is a poor use of resources. Too much swap space can also hide memory leaks. The maximum size for a swap partition and other additional information can be found in the `mkswap(8)` man page.
When using {PRODUCT} as a workstation for normal use with a graphical environment, this mount point should have the most disk space assigned to it, as it will likely hold the most data (user settings, images, videos, etc).
You can force the installer to use GPT on disks smaller than 2 TB by using the [option]#inst.gpt# boot option as described in xref:advanced/Boot_Options.adoc#chap-anaconda-boot-options[Boot Options]. However, the opposite is not possible - you can not use MBR on disks larger than 2 TB.
You need to create a _BIOS Boot_ partition with a size of 1 MB to install on a system with BIOS firmware if the disk containing the boot loader uses GPT. If the disk uses a MBR, no special partition is necessary on a BIOS system.