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Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
indexterm:[kernel,downloading]indexterm:[kernel,upgrade kernel available]indexterm:[kernel,upgrade kernel available,via Fedora Update System]indexterm:[kernel,upgrade kernel available,Security Advisories] There are several ways to determine if an updated kernel is available for the system.
Via Fedora Update System — Download and install the kernel RPM packages. For more information, refer to link:++[].
Via `_DNF_` using check-update:
dnf check-update --enablerepo=updates-testing
To install the kernel manually, continue to xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s1-kernel-perform-upgrade[Performing the Upgrade].
Performing the Upgrade
indexterm:[kernel,performing kernel upgrade] After retrieving all of the necessary packages, it is time to upgrade the existing kernel.
Keep the old kernel when performing the upgrade
It is strongly recommended that you keep the old kernel in case there are problems with the new kernel.
At a shell prompt, change to the directory that contains the kernel RPM packages. Use [option]`-i` argument with the [command]#rpm# command to keep the old kernel. Do *not* use the [option]`-U` option, since it overwrites the currently installed kernel, which creates boot loader problems. For example:
~]#{nbsp}rpm -ivh kernel-kernel_version.arch.rpm
The next step is to verify that the initial RAM disk image has been created. See xref:kernel-module-driver-configuration/Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#sec-Verifying_the_Initial_RAM_Disk_Image[Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image] for details.
Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image
indexterm:[initial RAM disk image,verifying] The job of the initial RAM disk image is to preload the block device modules, such as for IDE, SCSI or RAID, so that the root file system, on which those modules normally reside, can then be accessed and mounted. On {MAJOROSVER} systems, whenever a new kernel is installed using either the [application]*DNF*, [application]*PackageKit*, or [application]*RPM* package manager, the [application]*Dracut* utility is always called by the installation scripts to create an _initramfs_ (initial RAM disk image).
On all architectures other than IBM eServer System i (see xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#bh-Verifying_the_Initial_RAM_Disk_Image_and_Kernel_on_IBM_eServer_System_i[Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image and Kernel on IBM eServer System i]), you can create an `initramfs` by running the [command]#dracut# command. However, you usually don't need to create an `initramfs` manually: this step is automatically performed if the kernel and its associated packages are installed or upgraded from RPM packages distributed by {OSORG}.
On architectures that use the GRUB 2 boot loader, you can verify that an `initramfs` corresponding to your current kernel version exists and is specified correctly in the `/boot/grub2/grub.cfg` configuration file by following this procedure:
As `root`, list the contents in the `/boot/` directory and find the kernel (`vmlinuz-_kernel_version_pass:attributes[{blank}]`) and `initramfs-_kernel_version_pass:attributes[{blank}]` with the latest (most recent) version number:
Ensuring that the kernel and initramfs versions match
~]# ls /boot/