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indexterm:[initial RAM disk image,verifying] The job of the initial RAM disk image is to preload the block device modules, such as for IDE, SCSI or RAID, so that the root file system, on which those modules normally reside, can then be accessed and mounted. On {MAJOROSVER} systems, whenever a new kernel is installed using either the [application]*DNF*, [application]*PackageKit*, or [application]*RPM* package manager, the [application]*Dracut* utility is always called by the installation scripts to create an _initramfs_ (initial RAM disk image).
indexterm:[kernel,downloading]indexterm:[kernel,upgrade kernel available]indexterm:[kernel,upgrade kernel available,via Fedora Update System]indexterm:[kernel,upgrade kernel available,Security Advisories] There are several ways to determine if an updated kernel is available for the system.
indexterm:[kernel,installing kernel packages] For more information on installing kernel packages with [application]*DNF*, see xref:package-management/DNF.adoc#sec-Updating_Packages[Updating Packages].
indexterm:[kernel,kernel packages]indexterm:[kernel package,kernel,for single, multicore and multiprocessor systems]indexterm:[packages,kernel,for single, multicore and multiprocessor systems]indexterm:[kernel package,kernel-devel,kernel headers and makefiles]indexterm:[packages,kernel-devel,kernel headers and makefiles]indexterm:[kernel package,kernel-headers,C header files files]indexterm:[packages,kernel-headers,C header files files]indexterm:[kernel package,linux-firmware,firmware files]indexterm:[packages,linux-firmware,firmware files]indexterm:[kernel package,perf,firmware files]indexterm:[packages,perf,firmware files] {MAJOROS} contains the following kernel packages:
indexterm:[kernel,performing kernel upgrade] After retrieving all of the necessary packages, it is time to upgrade the existing kernel.
indexterm:[kernel,upgrading the kernel]indexterm:[kernel,package]indexterm:[kernel,RPM package]indexterm:[package,kernel RPM] The {MAJOROS} kernel is custom-built by the {MAJOROS} kernel team to ensure its integrity and compatibility with supported hardware. Before a kernel is released, it must first pass a rigorous set of quality assurance tests. indexterm:[kernel, atualizando o kernel]indexterm:[kernel, pacote]indexterm:[kernel, pacote RPM]indexterm:[pacote, kernel RPM] O kernel {MAJOROS} é customizado pela equipe do kernel {MAJOROS} para garantir sua integridade e compatibilidade com o hardware compatível. Antes de um kernel ser lançado, ele deve primeiro passar por um conjunto rigoroso de testes de garantia de qualidade.
indexterm:[OS/400 boot loader,configuring]indexterm:[OS/400 boot loader,configuration file] The `/boot/vmlinitrd-_kernel-version_pass:attributes[{blank}]` file is installed when you upgrade the kernel. However, you must use the [command]#dd# command to configure the system to boot the new kernel.
initrd files in the /boot/ directory are not the same as initramfs files
In `menuentry` blocks, the `initrd` directive must point to the location (relative to the `/boot` directory if it is on a separate partition) of the `initramfs` file corresponding to the same kernel version. This directive is called `initrd` because the previous tool which created initial RAM disk images, [command]#mkinitrd#, created what were known as `initrd` files. The `grub.cfg` directive remains `initrd` to maintain compatibility with other tools. The file-naming convention of systems using the [command]#dracut# utility to create the initial RAM disk image is `initramfs-_kernel_version_.img`.
Install the [application]*SYSLINUX* bootloader on the USB storage device:
In the `/boot/` directory you might find several `initrd-_kernel_version_pass:attributes[{blank}]kdump.img` files. These are special files created by the `kdump` mechanism for kernel debugging purposes, are not used to boot the system, and can safely be ignored. For more information on `kdump`, see the link:++https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/Kernel_Crash_Dump_Guide/++[Red{nbsp}Hat Enterprise{nbsp}Linux{nbsp}7 Kernel Crash Dump Guide].
In the following table, find your system's architecture to determine the boot loader it uses, and then click on the "See" link to jump to the correct instructions for your system.
It is always recommended to double-check the boot loader configuration file after installing a new kernel with [command]#rpm# to ensure that the configuration is correct. Otherwise, the system might not be able to boot into {MAJOROS} properly. If this happens, boot the system with the boot media created earlier and re-configure the boot loader.
It is strongly recommended that you keep the old kernel in case there are problems with the new kernel.
Keep the old kernel when performing the upgrade
~]# ls /boot/
config-3.17.4-302.fc21.x86_64
config-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64
config-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64
efi
elf-memtest86+-5.01
extlinux
grub2
initramfs-0-rescue-db90b4e3715b42daa871351439343ca4.img
initramfs-3.17.4-302.fc21.x86_64.img
initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img
initramfs-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64.img
initrd-plymouth.img
lost+found
memtest86+-5.01
System.map-3.17.4-302.fc21.x86_64
System.map-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64
System.map-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64
vmlinuz-0-rescue-db90b4e3715b42daa871351439343ca4
vmlinuz-3.17.4-302.fc21.x86_64
vmlinuz-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64
vmlinuz-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64
~]# lsinitrd /boot/initramfs-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64.img
Image: /boot/initramfs-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64.img: 18M
========================================================================
Version: dracut-038-31.git20141204.fc21
[output truncated]
{MAJOROS} kernels are packaged in the RPM format so that they are easy to upgrade and verify using the [application]*DNF* or [application]*PackageKit* package managers. [application]*PackageKit* automatically queries the DNF repositories and informs you of packages with available updates, including kernel packages. Os kernels {MAJOROS} são empacotados no formato RPM para que sejam fáceis de atualizar e verificar usando os gerenciadores de pacotes [application]*DNF* ou [application]*PackageKit*. [application]*PackageKit* consulta automaticamente os repositórios DNF e informa sobre pacotes com atualizações disponíveis, incluindo pacotes de kernel.
Manually Upgrading the Kernel Atualizando Manualmente o Kernel
menuentry 'Fedora (3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64) 21 (Twenty One)' --class fedora --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os --unrestricted $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-3.17.4-301.fc21.x86_64-advanced-effee860-8d55-4e4a-995e-b4c88f9ac9f0' {
load_video
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='hd0,msdos1'
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint='hd0,msdos1' f19c92f4-9ead-4207-b46a-723b7a2c51c8
else
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root f19c92f4-9ead-4207-b46a-723b7a2c51c8
fi
linux16 /vmlinuz-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64 root=/dev/mapper/fedora-root ro rd.lvm.lv=fedora/swap rd.lvm.lv=fedora/root rhgb quiet LANG=en_US.UTF-8
initrd16 /initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img
}