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Create mount points for `boot.iso` and the USB storage device:
dnf check-update --enablerepo=updates-testing
~]# dnf list installed "kernel-*"
Last metadata expiration check performed 0:28:51 ago on Tue May 26 21:22:39 2015.
Installed Packages
kernel-core.x86_64 4.0.3-300.fc22 @System
kernel-core.x86_64 4.0.4-300.fc22 @System
kernel-core.x86_64 4.0.4-301.fc22 @System
kernel-headers.x86_64 4.0.4-301.fc22 @System
kernel-modules.x86_64 4.0.3-300.fc22 @System
kernel-modules.x86_64 4.0.4-300.fc22 @System
kernel-modules.x86_64 4.0.4-301.fc22 @System
Downloading the Upgraded Kernel
~]# dracut
~]# dracut
F: Will not override existing initramfs (/boot/initramfs-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64.img) without --force
~]# dracut "initramfs-$(uname -r).img" $(uname -r)
Each `menuentry` block that represents an installed Linux kernel contains `linux` and `initrd` directives followed by the path to the kernel and the `initramfs` image respectively. If a separate `/boot` partition was created, the paths to the kernel and the `initramfs` image are relative to `/boot`. In the example above, the `initrd16 /initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img` line means that the `initramfs` image is actually located at `/boot/initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img` when the root file system is mounted, and likewise for the kernel path.
Ensuring that the kernel and initramfs versions match
Examine the `/boot/grub2/grub.cfg` configuration file to ensure that an `initramfs-_kernel_version_.img` file exists for the kernel version you are booting. For example:
First, ensure that working boot media exists for the system in case a problem occurs. If the boot loader is not configured properly to boot the new kernel, you can use this media to boot into {MAJOROS}.
For information on using [application]*Dracut*, refer to xref:kernel-module-driver-configuration/Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#sec-Verifying_the_Initial_RAM_Disk_Image[Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image].
From the output, determine which packages need to be downloaded for the kernel upgrade. For a single processor system, the only required package is the [package]*kernel* package. See xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s1-kernel-packages[Overview of Kernel Packages] for descriptions of the different packages.
~]# grep initramfs /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
initrd16 /initramfs-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64.img
initrd16 /initramfs-3.17.6-300.fc21.x86_64.img
initrd16 /initramfs-3.17.4-302.fc21.x86_64.img
initrd16 /initramfs-0-rescue-db90b4e3715b42daa871351439343ca4.img
IBM eServer System p uses YABOOT as its boot loader. YABOOT uses `/etc/aboot.conf` as its configuration file. Confirm that the file contains an `image` section with the same version as the [package]*kernel* package just installed, and likewise for the `initramfs` image:
If you need to specify specific kernel modules to be preloaded, add the names of those modules (minus any file name suffixes such as `.ko`) inside the parentheses of the `add_dracutmodules="pass:attributes[{blank}]_module_ _more_modules_pass:attributes[{blank}]"` directive of the `/etc/dracut.conf` configuration file. You can list the file contents of an `initramfs` image file created by dracut by using the [command]#lsinitrd _initramfs_file_pass:attributes[{blank}]# command:
If you set the [option]`GRUB_TIMEOUT` option in the `/etc/default/grub` file to 0, GRUB 2 will not display its list of bootable kernels when the system starts up. In order to display this list when booting, press and hold any alphanumeric key while and immediately after BIOS information is displayed, and GRUB 2 will present you with the GRUB menu.
indexterm:[boot loader,verifying] When you install a kernel using [command]#rpm#, the kernel package creates an entry in the boot loader configuration file for that new kernel. However, [command]#rpm# does *not* configure the new kernel to boot as the default kernel. You must do this manually when installing a new kernel with [command]#rpm#.
indexterm:[boot media]indexterm:[kernel,upgrading,preparing]indexterm:[kernel upgrading,preparing]indexterm:[kernel,upgrading,working boot media] Before upgrading the kernel, it is recommended that you take some precautionary steps.
indexterm:[GRUB 2 boot loader,configuring]indexterm:[GRUB 2 boot loader,configuration file] {MAJOROSVER} is distributed with GRUB 2, which reads its configuration from the `/boot/grub2/grub.cfg` file. This file is generated by the [application]*grub2-mkconfig* utility based on Linux kernels located in the `/boot` directory, template files located in `/etc/grub.d/`, and custom settings in the `/etc/default/grub` file and is automatically updated each time you install a new kernel from an RPM package. To update this configuration file manually, type the following at a shell prompt as `root`: