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To assign a default password, type the following at a shell prompt as `root`:
This will set the time limit to 120 seconds. To adjust this limit, change the value after the [option]`idle` directive.
This way, a password will be required to unlock the session.
This directory is owned by user `juan` and group `juan`. It has _read_, _write_, and _execute_ privileges *only* for the user `juan`. All other permissions are denied.
This command sets the value for the date the password was last changed to the epoch (January 1, 1970). This value forces immediate password expiration no matter what password aging policy, if any, is in place.
The Users Settings Tool
The Users settings tool
The setting which determines what permissions are applied to a newly created file or directory is called a _umask_ and is configured in the `/etc/bashrc` file. Traditionally on UNIX-based systems, the [command]#umask# is set to [command]#022#, which allows only the user who created the file or directory to make modifications. Under this scheme, all other users, *including members of the creator's group*, are not allowed to make any modifications. However, under the UPG scheme, this "group protection" is not necessary since every user has their own private group.
There is an `x` for the password field indicating that the system is using shadow passwords.
The password is set to never expire.
The optional _GECOS_ information is left blank. The GECOS field can be used to provide additional information about the user, such as their full name or phone number.
The line has the following characteristics:
The line created in `/etc/group` has the following characteristics:
The home directory for `juan` is set to `/home/juan/`.
The GID matches the one listed for `juan`pass:attributes[{blank}]'s primary group in `/etc/passwd`.
The following steps illustrate what happens if the command [command]#useradd juan# is issued on a system that has shadow passwords enabled:
The following is a list of the advantages shadow passwords have over the traditional way of storing passwords on UNIX-based systems:
The files within the `/etc/skel/` directory (which contain default user settings) are copied into the new `/home/juan/` directory. The contents of `/etc/skel/` may vary depending on installed applications:
The default shell is set to [command]#/bin/bash#.
The [command]#usermod# command with the [option]`-e, --expiredate` or [option]`-f, --inactive` option.