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[package]*kernel-devel* — Contains the kernel headers and makefiles sufficient to build modules against the [package]*kernel* package.
[package]*kernel-headers* — Includes the C header files that specify the interface between the Linux kernel and user-space libraries and programs. The header files define structures and constants that are needed for building most standard programs.
[package]*kernel-tools* — Contains tools for manipulating the Linux kernel and supporting documentation.
[package]*linux-firmware* — Contains all of the firmware files that are required by various devices to operate.
[package]*perf* — This package contains supporting scripts and documentation for the [application]*perf* tool shipped in each kernel image subpackage.
Performing the Upgrade
Preparing to Upgrade
See [command]#man dracut# and [command]#man dracut.conf# for more information on options and usage.
See xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s1-kernel-boot-loader[Verifying the Boot Loader] for more information on how to read and update the `/boot/grub2/grub.cfg` file.
The initrd directive in grub.cfg refers to an initramfs image
The kernel version number as given on the `linux /vmlinuz-_kernel_version_pass:attributes[{blank}]` line must match the version number of the `initramfs` image given on the `initrd /initramfs-_kernel_version_.img` line of each `menuentry` block. For more information on how to verify the initial RAM disk image, refer to xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#procedure-Verifying_the_Initial_RAM_Disk_Image[Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image].
The _kernel_version_ should match the version of the kernel just installed.
the latest kernel is `vmlinuz-3.17.7-300.fc21.x86_64`, and
The next step is to verify that the initial RAM disk image has been created. See xref:kernel-module-driver-configuration/Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#sec-Verifying_the_Initial_RAM_Disk_Image[Verifying the Initial RAM Disk Image] for details.
This chapter is therefore *only* useful for users who need to manually update a kernel package using the [command]#rpm# command instead of [command]#dnf#. indexterm:[kernel,installing kernel packages]indexterm:[installing the kernel]
To determine which kernel packages are installed, execute the command [command]#dnf list installed "kernel-*"# at a shell prompt. The output will comprise some or all of the following packages, depending on the system's architecture, and the version numbers might differ:
To install the kernel manually, continue to xref:Manually_Upgrading_the_Kernel.adoc#s1-kernel-perform-upgrade[Performing the Upgrade].
Unmount `boot.iso` and the USB storage device:
USB media often comes in the form of flash devices sometimes called _pen drives_, _thumb disks_, or _keys_, or as an externally-connected hard disk device. Almost all media of this type is formatted as a `VFAT` file system. You can create bootable USB media on media formatted as `ext2`, `ext3`, `ext4`, or `VFAT`.
Use DNF to install kernels whenever possible