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For more information about targets in [application]*systemd*, see the [citetitle]_xref:fedora:system-administrators-guide:index.adoc[{PRODUCT} System Administrator's Guide]_.
No Graphical User Interface Present
If you are having trouble getting [application]*X* (the [application]*X Window System*) to start, it is possible that it has not been installed. Some of the pre-set base environments you can select during the installation, such as `Minimal install` or `Web Server`, do not include a graphical interface - it has to be installed manually.
If you want [application]*X*, you can install the necessary packages after the installation using the [application]*DNF* package manager. For example, to install [application]*GNOME*, use [command]#dnf install gnome-shell# as `root`.
X Server Crashing After User Logs In
If you are having trouble with the [application]*X* server crashing when a user logs in, one or more of your file systems may be full (or nearly full). To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, execute the following command:
$ [command]#df -h#
The output will help you diagnose which partition is full - in most cases, the problem will be on the `/home` partition. A sample output of the [command]#df# command may look similar to the following:
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel-root 20G 6.0G 13G 32% /
devtmpfs 1.8G 0 1.8G 0% /dev
tmpfs 1.8G 2.7M 1.8G 1% /dev/shm
tmpfs 1.8G 1012K 1.8G 1% /run
tmpfs 1.8G 0 1.8G 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs 1.8G 2.6M 1.8G 1% /tmp
/dev/sda1 976M 150M 760M 17% /boot
/dev/dm-4 90G 90G 0 100% /home
In the above example, you can see that the `/home` partition is full, which causes the crash. You can make some room on the partition by removing unneeded files. After you free up some disk space, start [application]*X* using the [command]#startx# command.
For additional information about [command]#df# and an explanation of the options available (such as the [option]#-h# option used in this example), see the `df(1)` man page.
Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
In some cases the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM), which causes the system to use less memory than is installed. You can find out how much RAM is being utilized using the [command]#free -m# command. If the displayed total amount of memory does not match your expectations, it is likely that at least one of your memory modules is faulty. On BIOS-based systems, you can use the [application]*Memtest86+* utility to test your system's memory - see xref:advanced/Boot_Options.adoc#sect-boot-options-memtest[Loading the Memory (RAM) Testing Mode] for details.
If you have 4GB or more memory installed, but {PRODUCT} only shows around 3.5GB or 3.7GB, you have probably installed a 32-bit version of {PRODUCT} on a 64bit kernel. For modern systems, use the 64-bit (x86_64) version.
Some hardware configurations have a part of the system's RAM reserved and unavailable to the main system. Notably, laptop computers with integrated graphics cards will reserve some memory for the GPU. For example, a laptop with 4{nbsp}GB of RAM and an integrated Intel graphics card will show only roughly 3.7{nbsp}GB of available memory, even with a 64-bit system.
Additionally, the [application]*kdump* crash kernel dumping mechanism reserves some memory for the secondary kernel used in case of the primary kernel crashing. This reserved memory will also not be displayed as available when using the [command]#free# command. For details about [application]*kdump* and its memory requirements, see the [citetitle]_xref:fedora:system-administrators-guide:index.adoc[{PRODUCT} System Administrator's Guide]_.
If you made sure that your memory does not have any issues, you can try and set the amount of memory manually using the [option]#mem=# kernel option.
Configuring the Memory Manually
In the list of options, find the kernel line - that is, the line beginning with the keyword `linux` (or, in some cases, `linux16`). Append the following option to the end of this line:
mem=pass:attributes[{blank}]_xx_pass:attributes[{blank}]M