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Setting Up an Installation Server 搭建安装服务器
This appendix is intended for users with previous Linux experience. If you are a new user, you may want to install using minimal boot media or the distribution DVD instead. 此附录为之前有过Linux经验的人而准备。如果你是一个新用户,那么你也许想要使用最小启动媒体或者发行版DVD,而不是这个来进行安装。
PXE Installation Overview PXE安装概览
Preboot Execution Environment, or PXE, is a techonology that allows computers to boot directly from resources provided over the network. Installing Fedora over the network means you don't have to create media, and you can install to multiple computers or virtual machine simultaneously. The process involves a number of components and features working together to provide the resources required. 预先启动安装环境或PXE,是一种允许电脑直接从网络上的资源来启动的技术。通过网络安装Fedora意味着你不需要创建媒体,并且你可以同时将操作系统安装到多台电脑或虚拟机上。这个过程包含了大量的组件和特性共同提供需要的资源。
PXE-capable computer PXE兼容的电脑
Most modern computers have the capability to network boot. Typically, a function key pressed during boot will bring up a boot selection menu. In environments designed for unattended administration, systems will often be configured to first attempt booting from the network, then boot from local storage, and the installation server is configured to only offer the installation when required. Your computer's manual will provide specific instructions on setting boot priorities. 大多数现代的电脑拥有网络启动的能力。典型的做法是在启动时按下一个功能键即可进入一个启动选择菜单。在非人工值守的环境中,系统通常被配置为首次尝试从网络启动,然后才从本地存储中启动,然后安装服务器就被配置为只在安装时才被需要。你的电脑的手册将提供在设置启动顺序上的、专业的信息。
DHCP Server DHCP服务器
When a system requests an address during network booting, the DHCP server also provides the location of files to boot. A network should have only one DHCP server. 当一个操作系统在网络启动时需要一个地址时,DHCP服务器也将提供用于启动的文件的地址。一个网络需要有且仅有一个DHCP服务器。
TFTP Server TFTP服务器
Because the pre-boot environment is very simple, files must be provided in a very simple way. Trivial File Transfer Protocol, or TFTP, provides the system with the bootloader required to continue the installation process. 由于预启动环境非常简单,所以文件必须以一种非常简单的方式被提供。普通文件传输协议,或TFTP,将系统提供给要求继续安装过程的bootloader。
Bootloader Bootloader
Because the job of booting an operating system is too complex for the pre-boot environment, a bootloader is used to load the kernel and related files. It also provides configuration information to the installer, and can offer a menu to select from different configurations. 由于启动一个操作系统的工作对于预启动环境而言太过于复杂,所以需要一个bootloader来加载内核和相关的文件。它还为安装器提供配置信息,还能提供一个用于选择不同配置的菜单。
Kernel and Initramfs 内核和Initramfs
The kernel is the core of any Linux operating system, and the initramfs provides the kernel with required tools and resources. These files are also provided by tftp. 内核是任意Linux操作系统的核心,然后initramfs为内核提供需要的工具和资源。这些文件也被TFTP所提供。
Package repository 软件源
A Fedora repository must be available for the installation. The example in this section uses the public Fedora mirrors as the repository source, but you can also use a repo on the local network provided by NFS, FTP, or HTTP. Repositories can be configured using the [option]#inst.repo=# boot option; see xref:advanced/Boot_Options.adoc#sect-boot-options-sources[Specifying the Installation Source] for details.
DHCP Server Configuration DHCP服务器配置
Installing and configuring dhcpd 安装并配置dhcpd
Install the dhcp server package. 安装dhcp服务器软件包。
# dnf install dhcp
# dnf install dhcp