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If you are having trouble with the [application]*X* server crashing when a user logs in, one or more of your file systems may be full (or nearly full). To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, execute the following command:
If you have 4GB or more memory installed, but {PRODUCT} only shows around 3.5GB or 3.7GB, you have probably installed a 32-bit version of {PRODUCT} on a 64bit kernel. For modern systems, use the 64-bit (x86_64) version.
If you have installed the [application]*X Window System* and a desktop environment such as [application]*GNOME*, but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you log into your system, you can start it manually using the [command]#startx# command. Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
If you made sure that your memory does not have any issues, you can try and set the amount of memory manually using the [option]#mem=# kernel option.
If you want [application]*X*, you can install the necessary packages after the installation using the [application]*DNF* package manager. For example, to install [application]*GNOME*, use [command]#dnf install gnome-shell# as `root`.
In `/etc/default/grub`, the above example would look similar to the following:
In some cases the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM), which causes the system to use less memory than is installed. You can find out how much RAM is being utilized using the [command]#free -m# command. If the displayed total amount of memory does not match your expectations, it is likely that at least one of your memory modules is faulty. On BIOS-based systems, you can use the [application]*Memtest86+* utility to test your system's memory - see xref:advanced/Boot_Options.adoc#sect-boot-options-memtest[Loading the Memory (RAM) Testing Mode] for details.
In the above example, you can see that the `/home` partition is full, which causes the crash. You can make some room on the partition by removing unneeded files. After you free up some disk space, start [application]*X* using the [command]#startx# command.
In the list of options, find the kernel line - that is, the line beginning with the keyword `linux` (or, in some cases, `linux16`). Append the following option to the end of this line:
In the list of options, find the kernel line - that is, the line beginning with the keyword `linux` (or, in some cases, `linux16` or `linuxefi`). On this line, locate the `rhgb` option and delete it. The option may not be immediately visible; use the cursor keys to scroll up and down.
Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Log in to the `root` account using the [command]#su -# command:
mem=pass:attributes[{blank}]_xx_pass:attributes[{blank}]M
No Graphical User Interface Present
On this line, delete the `rhgb` option.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the [command]#su -# command.
Open the `/etc/default/grub` configuration file using a plain text editor such as [application]*vim*.
Press kbd:[F10] or kbd:[Ctrl + X] to boot your system with the edited options.
Refresh the boot loader configuration by executing the following command:
Replace _xx_ with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.